Cultivated CIK cells, which express marker of natural killer cells (NK), together with T cells expressing receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D). The mechanism that activates the destruction of tumor cells is done by CIK cells detecting the tension surrounding of tumor cells (tumor microenvironment) which is unsuitable for the normal cells to live.
CIK cells are not restricted to a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC), meaning , Win-K cells can be activated by many types of tumor cells and are not subject to any specific type of tumor cells. Since CIK cells does not being activated by a specific MHC (non-majorhistocompatibility complex-restricted). CIK cells and tumor cells will contact and CIK cells will produce perforin to be released to destroy cell membrane of tumor cells without the depending on eFas in stimulating the perforin production. Additionally, it is observed that CIK cells can produce cytokines ie. IFN-g, RANTES, MIP1a and MIP1b. Cytokines will work with IFN-g in destroying tumor cells in the same process as T helper1 and Tcell.
Some concerns on the current cancer therapy especially impact on the immune system
• Anticancer drug
Traditional chemotherapeutic agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. This means that chemotherapy also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles. This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss).
Some newer anticancer drugs (for example, various monoclonal antibodies) are not indiscriminately cytotoxic, but rather target proteins that are abnormally expressed in cancer cells and that are essential for their growth. Such treatments are often referred to as targeted therapy (as distinct from classic chemotherapy) and are often used alongside traditional chemotherapeutic agents in antineoplastic treatment regimens.
• Radiation therapy
Late side effects of radiation therapy may or may not occur. Depending on the area of the body treated, one of the late side effects: Rarely, a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop after radiation therapy depend on the part of the body that was treated.
• Cancer surgery
solid tumor, sometimes surgery alone will cure the cancer, but you might need chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatment.
Dendritic cell cancer vaccines are designed to stimulate the patient’s own immune system against tumor antigens
• By triggering the immune system, Dendritic cell cancer vaccines can initiate a durable antitumor response that can attack tumor cells and lead to improved survival.
• Dendritic cell is drawn from patient’s blood. When dendritic cell discovered antigen, it encounters an antigen and decomposes it into small pieces (antigen peptide). The dendritic cell presents such peptide on its own surface (APCs).
• Injected back to own patient, these activated APCs are able to interact with naïve T cell, B cell and NK cell in the initiation of driven immune response.
• Generate an active immune response against an existing cancer
1. Radicate cancer only
As the dendritic cell teaches the lymphocyte the mark of cancer, it is possible to radicate cancer only.
2. Patrolling in the body for a long time to prevent cancer from growing
Some of the lymphocytes that have remembered the mark of cancer remain in the body and, when they encounter cancer cells again, activate and attack them. These lymphocytes remain effective as long as they are in the body. Therefore, a recurrence prevention effect is also expectable.
3. Effect on metastasizing cancer
The lymphocytes that have remembered the mark of cancer attack cancer cells by circulating through the body. Consequently they can attack metastasizing cancer cells as well.
Little worry about side effects
The dendritic cell vaccine therapy gives little worry about side effects because the vaccine is prepared based on the patient’s cells.
It’s features little burden on the body and has little side effects, as it does not damage normal cells.
• Potential for synergy
Dendritic cell vaccine is received additionally after such standard therapy (operation, anticancer drug, radiation therapy). Recently there are also expectations for prevention of metastasis and recurrence after an operation or radiation therapy.
The dendritic cell is a kind of immune cell. As its name implies, has a shape with many long projections that look like tree branches sticking out from it.
At first the cell (monocyte) which becomes the source of dendritic cell is taken out of the patient’s body. And it is natured into a dendritic cell.
When dendritic cell discovered antigen, it encounters an antigen by phagocytizes antigen (bites it and swallows it in) and and decomposes it into small pieces (antigen peptide). The dendritic cell presents such peptide on its own surface.
We inject this dendritic cell (which present antigen peptide) back into patient’s (own dendritic cell) body. This dendritic cell migrates to its regional lymph node and presents antigen information to a lymphocyte (naïve T cell). It thus inducing the outbreak of various immune responses, NK cells, etc. begin to specifically attack the antigen.
The dendritic cell vaccine therapy is cancer treatment utilizing the above function of the dendritic cell. In concrete terms, the dendritic cell is made to remember the characteristics of the artificial antigen and then it is returned into the patient’s body. As a result, the dendritic cell makes the lymphocyte remember the characteristics of cancer and the lymphocyte comes to specifically aim at and attack cancer cells.
Thus the dendritic cell vaccine therapy enables specific aim and attack of cancer cells and does not damage normal cells, so there is little worry about side effects.
Also, in April 2010 the FDA of the U.S. approved a prostate cancer treatment vaccine using dendritic cell. This is the first case of the FDA approving a cancer immune therapy using one’s own cells.
“Dendritic cell” is an immune cell that plays approximately the role of a “commander” who teaches the mark of cancer to the lymphocyte, which plays the role of a soldier to attack cancer. Also, the dendritic cell gives commands to the other immune cells to attack the cancer by the whole immune system.
1.The cell (monocyte) which becomes the source of dendritic cell taken from the patient is nurtured into a dendritic cell.
2. And then the artificial antigen are given. Dendritic cell encounters an antigen by phagocytizes antigen and presents such peptide on its own surface.
3. As the dendritic cell which has obtained the mark of cancer is returned into the body, the lymphocyte is taught the mark of cancer and is guided to attack cancer.
4. The lymphocyte guided by the dendritic cell aims at and attacks only the cancer cells in the body.
A cancer mark (artificial antigen) WT1 peptide, which can respond to almost all types of cancer, allows many people to receive the dendritic cell cancer vaccine therapy.
“WT1” is a kind of protein contained in almost all types of cancer. Utilizing its properties, “WT1 peptide*1,” being a part of “WT1,” is used as the mark of cancer in treatment methods such as the dendritic cell vaccine therapy, etc. WT1 has been evaluated*2 as most useful as cancer antigen in an academic journal of the U.S. and has been expected also in the world.
*1 Tella, Inc., from which our colaborated laboratory is provided with technology, retains an exclusive license concerning the application of WT1 peptide to dendritic cell vaccine therapy. Therefore, dendritic cell vaccine therapy using WT1 peptide can be received only in medical institutions that are under contract with Tella, Inc. *2 WT1 was evaluated as having the highest priority order (1st) among 75 types of cancer antigens in Clinical Cancer Research magazine (2009, Vol. 15, pages 5323 ～ 37), which is an academic journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR).
Tella, Inc., from which our collaborate laboratory is provided with technology, retains an exclusive license concerning the application of the artificial antigen “WT1 peptide ※ ,” which was discovered by Prof. Haruo Sugiyama (Osaka University) and which can be used on patients of almost all types of solid cancer/blood cancer. Therefore, only our laboratory and medical institutions that are under contract with Tella, Inc. can exclusively perform the dendritic cell vaccine therapy, etc. using the WT1 peptide. ※ Sugiyama H.,Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2010 May; 40(5):377-87
1. Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute lymphatic leukemia
2. Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma , Lung cancer
3. Breast cancer
4. Esophagus cancer, Stomach cancer, Bowel cancer, Bile duct cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Digestive system cancer
5. Glioblastoma, Brain tumor
6. Tongue cancer, Pharynx cancer, Larynx cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck
7. Periosteal sarcoma , Angiosarcoma, Bone cancer, Bone cancer, Sarcoma in soft part
8. Papillary cancer, Thyroid cancer
9. Uterine cervical cancer, Uterine body cancer, Ovarian cancer, Cancer of female genital
10. Neuroblastoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood cancer
The number of track records of cases is the top class in Japan, having reached about 7,600*1 (as of the end of December 2013) and so on. In the Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo, shrinkage/progression stop of cancer has been confirmed in about 30%*2 of the patients for whom there is no more choice of standard treatment
• oral cavity, pharynx, larynx
• gallbladder, bile duct
• melanoma (case)
*1 Total number of track records of cases in the medical institutions under contract with Tella, Inc., from which our laboratory is provided with technology
*2 Nagayama H. et al., Melanoma Res. Vol.13, Number 5 2003 ; 521-30
(The Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo; Research on Malignant Melanoma)
Kuwabara K. et al., Thyroid. Vol. 17, Number 1 2007; 53-8
(The Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo; Research on Thyroid Cancer)
The dendritic cell vaccine therapy achieves greater effects on cancer as the patient receives it as combined with the standard treatment being received such as operation, anticancer drug, radiation therapy, etc. In the case of an anticancer drug with strong side effects, however, it is sometimes better to shift the timing. For details, please consult your prime doctor.
The immune therapies so far can generally enhance immunity though their offensive power for cancer is not high. The greatest feature of the dendritic cell vaccine therapy, which is a new immune therapy, is its ability to radicate cancer only and it allows an immune reaction with a high offensive power to be expected. Furthermore, a recurrence prevention effect is also expectable.
Please contact our clinic , for a start. We will give you more detail.